According to Kim, Kumar & Kumar (2012), a successful TQM implementation itself is a business-level strategy that goes beyond process and should address the strategy content option of product design efficiency, product reliability, process efficiency and market advantage.
Employee Management Employee management can be described as the extent to which employees in an organization partake in training and development programs that empowers employees to be proficient in operational procedures to optimize service and production processes (Mosadeghrad, 2014).
Additionally, synonyms of the TQM elements may cause redundancies (Delic, Radlovacki, Kamberovic, Maksimovic & Pecujlija, 2014) hence it is essential for similar elements to be combined into one category of elements for this study as shown in Table 1.
To boot, there are total eight heterogeneous TQM elements after similar elements are being combined into one category of elements which constitute of leadership, strategic planning, supplier’s quality management, process management, product and service design, employee management, customer relationship management as well as information and analysis.
Supplier’s Quality Management Supplier’s quality management is defined as the procedure of assessing supplier’s quality performance as well as inaugurating long term organization-supplier partnership with product quality as the specification for supplier selection (Bolatan et al., 2016).
Selecting a high quality supplier can improve the quality of products or services due to the fact that materials and purchased parts are often a major source of quality problems (Sadikoglu et al., 2014).Employee management also instils a better understanding of importance of the product quality in employees and makes them committed to the quality improvement (Kafetzopoulos et al., 2015).Employees should be aware of how the quality policies of the organization affect their jobs; promote their development and motivation; and continuously improve their work output (Mahmood et al., 2015).Additionally, excessive hotel projects have saturated the market, with many more in the process of being constructed or about to be built, making the cutting-throat situation worst (The Star Online, 2017).The hotel market is pretty saturated at the moment and with more hotels opening, the demand for rooms is going to drop even further (The Metro News, 2017).Although low-cost management through discounting helps increase a hotel’s market share in the short term, it may negatively impact on profitability in the long term (Maslanka-Wieczorek, 2014).Many hotels therefore have turned to quality improvement for achieving a competitive advantage marketplace (Dimanche, 2014).What’s more, use of different terminology in the context of TQM elements is raising the difficulty of comparing sets of elements since the terms elements, principles, components, factors and criteria seem to be employed interchangeably (Ahmad et al., 2014).Motivated by this conclusion, it is recommended that the TQM elements to be standardized so that a sound comparison can be made (Calvo-Mora, Picon, Ruiz & Cauzo, 2014).Basically, the most influential factor in process management is technology (Fotopoulos et al., 2010) especially firms with strict quality systems that need to adopt up to date technologies in their processes (Ooi, 2014).Therefore, process management ought to focus on managing processes so that they operate as expected (Al-Ababneh et al., 2012).