Literature reviews are a basis for research in nearly every academic field.
“Whilst biased guessing may account for the misinformation effect that occurs in some instances (refs.), research suggests that it is not the only reason for the occurrence of the misinformation effect. This suggests that the misinformation effect may be due at least partially to memory impairment, rather than just biased guessing.” 5.
Sums up what has been learned from the review of the four current theoretical explanations. “Informational influence, biased guessing, and modification of memory may help to explain why memory conformity occurs when participants are tested individually, as they are in the studies presented in this thesis. The research presented in this thesis compares these alternative explanations to determine which best explains memory conformity in individual recall following co-witness discussion. “One way to determine whether memory conformity occurs because of biased guessing is to …” “Experiments described in this thesis (Studies 5-7) include a warning for some participants about possible misinformation in an attempt to determine whether participants report misinformation because of informational influence or memory change.” 7.
A fourth type, the systematic review, is often classified separately, but is essentially a literature review focused on a research question, trying to identify, appraise, select and synthesize all high-quality research evidence and arguments relevant to that question.
A meta-analysis is typically a systematic review using statistical methods to effectively combine the data used on all selected studies to produce a more reliable result.