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Business-unit-level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: A meta-analysis. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.2.268 Kahn, W. Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work.
This paper attempts to review and summarize previous research results on employee engagement. Current directions in psychological science, 20(4), 265-269.
Two kinds of definitions of employee engagement are identified: employee engagement as a multi-faceted construct (cognition, emotions and behaviors) and as a unitary construct (a positive state of mind, a dedicated willingness, the opposite of burnout). The link between perceived human resource management practices, engagement and employee behavior: A moderated mediation model. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721411414534 Bakker, A.
Employee engagement is found to have a positive relationship with individual performance (organizational commitment, positive behavior, etc.) and organizational performance (customer satisfaction, financial return, etc.) The research findings show that there are three shortcomings in previous studies: lack of research on demographic variables, personality differences and cross-cultural differences in employee engagement, lack of research on the mediating or moderating role of employee engagement, and lack of intervention mechanism for employee engagement.
https://doi.org/10.1108/13620430810870476 Bakker, A.
The purpose of this study is to investigate how employee engagement has been discussed in four representative HRD journals: ) framework, resulting in the selection of 24 articles for further review: 10 empirical articles and 14 conceptual articles.
These articles are then classified, summarized, and synthesized by year of publication, research type and aim, and analysis of findings.
Numerous studies on employee engagement in the HRD (human resource development) field have contributed to the promotion of employee engagement in organizations, yet issues and challenges remain.