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Additionally 9 trace metals parameters and 28 pesticide residues are analysed.Biomonitoring is also carried out on specific locations.A 1995 report claimed 114 Indian cities were dumping untreated sewage and partially cremated bodies directly into the Ganges River.
Canals, rivers and lakes in India often serve as dumping grounds for sewage, solid and liquid wastes.
These are sources of water pollution, as illustrated in Tamil Nadu (above) and West Bengal (below).
Plus the water had high concentration of COD and BOD (chemical and biochemical oxygen demand), ammonia, phosphate, chloride, chromium, arsenic and chlorpyrifos pesticide.
The ground water also contains nickel and selenium, while the tap water has high concentration of lead, nickel and cadmium.
The scientific analysis of water samples from 1995 to 2008 indicates that the organic and bacterial contamination is severe in water bodies of India.
This is mainly due to discharge of domestic waste water in untreated form, mostly from the urban centres of India.
The Central Pollution Control Board,a Ministry of Environment & Forests Government of India entity, has established a National Water Quality Monitoring Network comprising 1429 monitoring stations in 28 states and 6 in Union Territories on various rivers and water bodies across the country. The monitoring network covers 293 rivers, 94 lakes, 9 tanks, 41 ponds, 8 creeks, 23 canals, 18 drains and 411 wells distributed across India.
Water samples are routinely analysed for 28 parameters including dissolved oxygen, bacteriological and other internationally established parameters for water quality.
Flooding during monsoons worsens India's water pollution problem, as it washes and moves solid waste and contaminated soils into its rivers and wetlands.
The annual average precipitation in India is about 4000 billion cubic metres.