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Make your own flashcards that can be shared with others.Learn with extra-efficient algorithm, developed by our team, to save your time.In 2011, the ERPC committed itself to meeting and maintaining both a voluntary recycling rate target of 70% in the then E-27 plus Switzerland and Norway by 2015 as well as qualitative targets in areas such as waste prevention, ecodesign and research and development.
Recycling paper decreases the demand for virgin pulp, thus reducing the overall amount of air and water pollution associated with paper manufacture.
Recycled pulp can be bleached with the same chemicals used to bleach virgin pulp, but hydrogen peroxide and sodium hydrosulfite are the most common bleaching agents.
Relating tons of paper recycled to the number of trees not cut is meaningless, since tree size varies tremendously and is the major factor in how much paper can be made from how many trees.
The Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC) and the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certify paper made from trees harvested according to guidelines meant to ensure good forestry practices.
Recycling has long been practiced in the United States.
In 2012, paper and paperboard accounted for 68 million tons of municipal solid waste generated in the U. The US paper industry set a goal of recovering 55 percent of all paper used in the US by 2012.As of 1999, 480 materials recovery facilities had been established to process the collected materials.Recently, junk mail has become a larger part of the overall recycling stream, compared to newspapers or personal letters.Internationally, about half of all recovered paper comes from converting losses (pre-consumer recycling), such as shavings and unsold periodicals; approximately one third comes from household or post-consumer waste. The industry self-initiative European Recovered Paper Council (ERPC) was set up in 2000 to monitor progress towards meeting the paper recycling targets set out in the 2000 European Declaration on Paper Recycling.Since then, the commitments in the Declaration have been renewed every five years.This is enough electricity to power a 3-bedroom European house for an entire year, or enough energy to heat and air-condition the average North American home for almost six months.Recycling paper to make pulp actually consumes more fossil fuels than making new pulp via the kraft process; these mills generate most of their energy from burning waste wood (bark, roots, sawmill waste) and byproduct lignin (black liquor).It is less energy and water intensive than paper made from wood pulp.It saves waste paper from occupying landfill and producing methane as it breaks down.Municipal collections of paper for recycling are in place.However, according to the Yomiuri Shimbun, in 2008, eight paper manufacturers in Japan have admitted to intentionally mislabeling recycled paper products, exaggerating the amount of recycled paper used.