Literature Review On Autism

Literature Review On Autism-36
The report examined eleven male children who had unusual but similar behavior patterns.The children also demonstrated the desire to remain alone.On the other hand, Asperger’s Syndrome (otherwise referred to as functioning autism) is the least severe.

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Over the years, numerous studies involving children with autism as the subjects have been conducted and the research findings have allowed researchers to uncover other similarities shared by children with the same condition.

Some of these symptoms include the inability to imitate what others speak, failure to acknowledge the presence of others, the ability to line up or stack objects endlessly, and the ability to memorize trivia (Hall & Graff, 2011, p. The cause of autism is not known yet and researchers are trying to identify whether the disorder is due to a single cause or multiple causes.

As Lyons (2010) reports, for every 1000 children, 6.7 are diagnosed with ASD.

The diagnosis of ASD involves the use of the diagnostic criteria.

A number of studies have demonstrated that the behavioral problems manifested by autistic children are indicative of maternal stress, and not the severity of the disorder or the associated adaptive behaviors.

In contrast, other scholars predict that there are many difficulties associated with the process of examining parental stress after a child has been diagnosed with autism.As symptoms of autism increase in severity, there is a corresponding effect on parental psychological well-being and stress.Already, some scholars are involved in a heated debate on whether the high parental stress levels are due to the primary symptoms of autism or the behavioral problems associated with the disorder.In addition, it can also prevent such families from participating in such non-routine activities as holiday activities, birthday parties, and community outings (Manning et al, 2011, p. As a result of these challenges, families with autistic children may end up isolating themselves socially from other families with non-autistic children.Such isolation may result in increased depression and low self esteem among the parents of an autistic child.Autism does not present with a clear etiology and as such, family members of children characterized by developmental disorders tend to report greater stress (Browska & Pisula 2010, p. Also, an autistic child may appear “normal” physically while the symptoms hidden in therein.Majority of the autistic children normally appear to be very attractive and as such, an outside observer may not be able to realize that such a child suffers from a disability at first glance.The same case also applies to their parents and caregivers (p. Bleuler coined the word “autism” in 1911, while Leo Kanner published the first clinical report on autism in 1973.In his report, Kanner sought to shed light on the cause of autism and how it affects the behavior of children.Nevertheless, the specification of several ASD subtypes might promote further research and resolve many of the nosologic issues with respect to the classification of pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs).The literature review was prepared for the APA DSM-IV Advisory Group on Pervasive Developmental Disorders.


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