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This summary review of the literature synthesizes the current state-of-the-art in parent and community involvement; looks at the programs, practices, and their effects in the research and practice literature, especially since 1980; and ends with implications, conclusions and recommendations for research.
The conceptualization of parent and community involvement programs in Chapter 3 of this review involves the roles of parents and families (well established in research and practice), and community members (emerging as an important field of study) as they are facilitated in schools and school districts.
In 1991 the United States Department of Education commissioned twelve studies of different aspects of national educational reform.
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The conceptual framework proposed for this study indicated three areas of interest: the context of parent and community involvement programs; the roles that parents, families, and community members assume in the education of their children; and the effects of promising programs on parents, students, school staff, schools, and school districts. What key resources are needed to design, develop, implement, and sustain these roles?
This framework guided the review of the literature: How are these roles facilitated? Chapters 2, 3, and 4 contain a detailed discussion of parent and community involvement programs and practices.It is worth noting that much research was done prior to 1980 when funding for research was more available. Every attempt was made to include literature and research on middle grade parent and community involvement programs.However, research and materials are across all grade levels.The items included in this review focused primarily on one or more of the three topic areas mentioned above.Other items were included if they addressed the overall context of parent and community involvement in grades four through eight or if they laid the foundation for further research or material development in any of the three topic areas. Schools are rarely organized around middle grades, i.e., Grades 4 through 8.In the area of parent and community involvement, three areas were identified for concentrated study: l) districtwide programs, 2) school restructuring, and 3) adult-child learning experiences (home learning).This study focused on parent and community involvement in middle grades education including these three broad areas outlined in the original Request for Proposals.To provide clarity, we define the three areas as: Districtwide programs.The emphasis of comprehensive district programs is on the variety of roles for parents and community members, particularly in schools with many educationally at-risk students.It focuses on a of the relationship among different works, and relating this research to your work.It may be written as a stand-alone paper or to provide a theoretical framework and rationale for a research study (such as a thesis or dissertation).