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In addition to linguistic theory, the approach draws from social theory—and contributions from Karl Marx, Antonio Gramsci, Louis Althusser, Jürgen Habermas, Michel Foucault and Pierre Bourdieu—in order to examine ideologies and power relations involved in discourse.
The meso-level or "level of discursive practice" involves studying issues of production and consumption, for instance, which institution produced a text, who is the target audience, etc.
At the macro-level, the analyst is concerned with intertextual and interdiscursive elements and tries to take into account the broad, societal currents that are affecting the text being studied. van Dijk's approach to Critical Discourse Analysis combines cognitive theories with linguistic and social theories.
This framework allows for the discussion and analysis of ideologies involved in a set of discourses.
The macro level of analysis is helpful in understanding how macro-structures of inequality persist through discursive processes across multiple sites and texts.
Notable writers include Norman Fairclough, Michał Krzyżanowski, Paul Chilton, Teun A. Richardson, Phil Graham, Theo Van Leeuwen, Siegfried Jäger, Christina Schäffner, James Paul Gee, Roger Fowler, Gunther Kress, Mary Talbot, Lilie Chouliaraki, Thomas Huckin, Hilary Janks, Veronika Koller, Christopher Hart, and Bob Hodge.
This article provides an example of how Critical Discourse Analysis can be used to analyse texts.CDA has been used to examine political speech acts, to highlight the rhetoric behind these, and any forms of speech that may be used to manipulate the impression given to the audience. For example, it has been said that it is simultaneously too broad to distinctly identify manipulations within the rhetoric, yet is also not powerful enough to appropriately find all that researchers set out to establish.Norman Fairclough discussed the term CDA in his book Language and Power.By looking at the coverage of a recent news event in two British newspapers, it demonstrates how a number of the linguistic ideas discussed in the How people present the world through language section of the Linguistic Toolbox can be used to produce an in-depth analysis of meaning in texts.Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) is a branch of linguistics that seeks to understand how and why certain texts affect readers and hearers.Ideology has been called the basis of the social representations of groups, and, in psychological versions of CDA developed by Teun A.van Dijk and Ruth Wodak, there is assumed to be a sociocognitive interface between social structures and discourse structures.There is no set group of tools that must be used, and researchers are discovering new ways of analysing language all the time.However, traditional tools used include modality, transitivity and nominalisation, while more recent additions include naming, opposition and negation. The articles represent each publication's take on a much-publicised British news story that broke on 19th February 2013, when the media picked up on a speech that the novelist Hilary Mantel gave for a When, later in the month, comments about Middleton and her portrayal in the press were reported in the newspapers, many articles focused on apparently unfavourable things that Mantel had said about Middleton.Critical discourse analysis (CDA) is an interdisciplinary approach to the study of discourse, or put simply talk and text, that views language as a form of social practice.Scholars working in the tradition of CDA generally argue that (non-linguistic) social practice and linguistic practice constitute one another and focus on investigating how societal power relations are established and reinforced through language use.