Essay On Environmental Determinism

The King's court was kept in the city of Ghanah, which, according to the author of the Book of Roger (El Idrisi), and the author of the Book of Roads and Realms (El Bekri), is divided into two parts, standing on both banks of the Nile, and ranks among the largest and most populous cities of the world.The people of Ghanah had for neighbours, on the east, a nation, which, according to historians, was called Susu; after which came another named Mali; and after that another known by the name of Kaukau ; although some people prefer a different orthography, and write this name Kagho.

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Because these environmental influences operate slowly on human biology, it was important to trace the migrations of groups to see what environmental conditions they had evolved under.

Key proponents of this notion have included Ellen Churchill Semple, Ellsworth Huntington, Thomas Griffith Taylor and possibly Jared Diamond.

Many translations of Ibn Khaldun were translated during the colonial era in order to fit the colonial propaganda map Translation and the Colonial Imaginary: Ibn Khaldun Orientalist, by AThe Negro Land of the Arabs Examined and Explained] was written in 1841 and gives excerpts of older translations that were not part of colonial propaganda.

The Negro Land of the Arabs Examined and Explained: "When the conquest of the West (by the Arabs) was completed, and merchants began to penetrate into the interior, they saw no nation of the Blacks so mighty as Ghanah, the dominions of which extended westward as far as the Ocean.

in Guanzi: Political, Economic, and Philosophical Essays from Early China: Who help create environmental determinism was Ellen Churchill Semple.

Another early adherent of environmental determinism was the medieval writer al-Jahiz, who explained how the environment can determine the physical characteristics of the inhabitants of a certain community.

Blackness and whiteness are in fact caused by the properties of the region, as well as by the God-given nature of water and soil and by the proximity or remoteness of the sun and the intensity or mildness of its heat." The Arab sociologist and polymath, Ibn Khaldun, was also an adherent of environmental determinism.

In his Muqaddimah (1377), he explained that black skin was due to the hot climate of sub-Saharan Africa and not due to their lineage.

However, there is little evidence of there actually being an Almoravid conquest.

The Almoravid Conquest of Ghana in the Modern Historiography of Western Africa by Pekka Masonen; Humphrey J. The Conquest That Never Was: Ghana and the Almoravids, 1076. The External Arabic Sources, by David Conrad and Humphrey Fisher © 1982 African Studies Association.


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